Pressure Vessel

A pressure vessel holds the reverse osmosis membrane elements,  it is also called pressure tube when membranes are spiral wounded. A typical RO pressure vessel can contain  six membrane elements.  Pressure vessel is important part of RO process as it is to handle membranes in high pressures. The pressure vessel contain permeate ports at terminal […]


Electrodialysis is a membrane-based process that uses electrical driving force. In this process by using alternating Anion–selective membranes (AMs) and Cation-selective membranes (CMs), situated between an Anode (+) and a Cathode (-), the separation of ions happens. Applied electric field, anions and cation will move towards the Anode and Cathode, respectively.  Anions are stopped by […]

Membrane Separation

Membrane separation is promising technology in water and wastewater for conventional and emerging contaminates. are classified, based on the type of driving force they use. The different type of driving force that separate   the water includes: a pressure differential and reverse ; and a electrical force with to an ion exchange that facilitate migration […]