Landfill leachate is a wastewater with very complex composition leached from a landfill or incineration power plant. Its water quality and quantity will change with the age and season of the landfill. COD, ammonia nitrogen and heavy metals are very high.
WaterSafe Inc. applies new technologies such DTRO and MBR for treatment of landfill leachate.
As result of removal of impurities such H2S and Mercaptans in oil and gas, spent caustic is generated. Spent caustic is high toxic and contains several hazardous contaminants such as sulfides, Mercaptans, sodium salts and high COD level. Organics in spent caustic are very complex due to its source such as Phenols, Naphthenics and Cresylics.
COD level of these streams can be from 10,000 to 250,000 ppm Due to these contaminants in refinery spent caustic, these wastewaters are difficult to treat with conventional treatment system and need special design. Older practices such as discharging into water stream such the ocean or dilution is not sustainable. Naturalization with acid require massive amount of acid as 5-15% mass weight in spent caustic. There are various methods for caustic treatment each of which has their own advantages and disadvantages. There are several treatments for spent caustic such as Wet Air Oxidation (WAO), Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) and Electrocoagulation (EC).
Watersafe Inc. with its partner established a turnkey containerized treatment package. This technology can remove up to 99% of COD and Sulfide compounds. Please contact us for more information.
Traditionally high purity water is produced by a combination of membrane separation and ion exchange processes. Electrodeionization (EDI) is an electrically-driven water treatment technology that utilize ion exchange membranes and resin to remove ionized species from water by electrical driving force,
An EDI stack has the basic structure of a deionization chamber. There is an ion exchange resin between two selective membranes. The membranes are ion selective and pass only specific charged ions. As water flow into the EDI module applied electricity makes ions to move through the resins and across the membranes. Therefore, water is deionized as the ions can pass through the membrane. These ions are collected into concentrate channel and remove from the system.
In comparison to more traditional ion-exchange process, EDI can provide a better energy consumption and operating expenses for high purity water treatment system in a constant flow. EDI has a continues and simple operation and there is no need of acid and caustic chemicals for regeneration. EDI requires little space and very few automatic valves or complex control sequences that need supervision by an operator
EDI can be used in any application that requires pure water for such as application as following
- Pharmaceutical industry
- Boiler feed water
- Demineralized water
- Pharmaceutical industry
- Reduction of ionizable SiO2 and TOC
Unlike conventional membrane which are from polymer, ceramic membranes are made of inorganics such as alumina, zirconia oxides, silicon carbide and etc. Ceramic membrane normally has an asymmetrical structure with porous support active membrane layer. Ceramics membrane can categorize based on different modules into flat membranes, roll membranes, hollow fiber membranes, and tubular membranes.
The membrane modules can withstand harsh operating condition such as high temperatures, extremes of pH (0 to 14), and elevated operating pressures up to 10 bar. This makes these membranes fit for many applications where polymeric and other inorganic membranes cannot be utilized. Furthermore, ceramic membranes are ideal for in-place chemical cleaning at high temperatures, while using caustic, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, ozone and strong inorganic acids, and/or by using steam sterilization.
* High resistance on acid and alkali condition.
* Long operating life which is 2-3 times longer than polymeric membrane
* Extensive application range of water temperature.
* Environmentally friendly, can be recycled as a raw material for ceramic products.
* Good hydrophilic, low operating pressure, saving energy.
* High flux
Ceramic membranes are widely being used in a broad range of industries such as biotechnology and pharmaceutical, dairy, food and beverage, as well as chemical and petrochemical, microelectronics, metal finishing, and power generation.
Waste Water Treatment
Food and Beverage
Application in municipal water treatment
Application in domestic sewage treatment
Application in oily wastewater treatment
Application in textile wastewater treatment
Application in printing and dyeing wastewater treatment
Application in chemical wastewater treatment
A pressure vessel holds the reverse osmosis membrane elements, it is also called pressure tube when membranes are spiral wounded. A typical RO pressure vessel can contain six membrane elements. Pressure vessel is important part of RO process as it is to handle membranes in high pressures. The pressure vessel contain permeate ports at terminal points.
Watersafe is proud distributor of the high quality pressure vessels that are planned to handle the highest pressure required by membranes . These pressure vessels are strengthened by durable fiberglass and incorporate end caps for durability.
Watersafe is the distributor pressure vessels of following manufactures
Electrodialysis is a membrane-based process that uses electrical driving force. In this process by using alternating Anion–selective membranes (AMs) and Cation-selective membranes (CMs), situated between an Anode (+) and a Cathode (-), the separation of ions happens. Applied electric field, anions and cation will move towards the Anode and Cathode, respectively. Anions are stopped by the CMs and the cations by the AMs, creating a process low ion concentration flow (Dilutant) and a process flow with high ion concentration (Concentrate). The process is shown in the below figure.
In electrodialysis, the charged suspended solids increase the resistance of the membrane dramatically, are deposited on the membrane surface over the time. By reversing the polarity of the applied electrical potential in certain time intervals can eliminate to a large extent by reversing will result in a removal of charged particles that have been precipitated on the membranes. This technique is referred to as electrodialysis reversal (EDR).
- Large scale brackish and seawater desalination and salt production.
- Small and medium scale drinking water production such as towns & villages, construction & military camps, nitrate reduction, hotels & hospitals.
- Pre-demineralization such as boiler makeup & pretreatment, ultrapure water pretreatment, process water desalination, power genration
- Food processing and agricultural water for greenhouses livestock and irrigation
- Glycerin purification
WaterSafe is a distributor of GE Aquamite* EDR Systems
Membrane separation is promising technology in water and wastewater for conventional and emerging contaminates. are classified, based on the type of driving force they use. The different type of driving force that separate the water includes: a pressure differential and reverse ; and a electrical force with to an ion exchange that facilitate migration of ions through the, electro and electrochemical devices).
Based on the pore sizes the Pressure-driven membrane processes are divided into reverse osmosis (RO), microfiltration (MF), nanofiltration (NF) and ultrafiltration (UF). In Figure 1 the different type of membranes and their mechanism are shown.
The selectivity between MF and UF is typically based upon pore size number (diameter of the micropores in a membrane surface) or molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) number. Reverse Osmosis also can be used to desalinated water as well as other contaminates.
Electrically driven (ED) membrane processes, commonly used in water/waste water treatment, also include electrically driven reversal (EDR) membrane processes. ED and EDR use a difference in electrical potential to induce dissolved ions to migrate through a water-impermeable membrane. This reduces their concentration in the feed water.
The anions (negatively charged ions) move in the direction of the positively charged electrode (anode) and are transported through the anionic membrane, but are restrained at the surface of the cationic membrane. The end result is a ‘dilute’ stream with a reduced salt concentration and a concentrate stream with a higher salt content than the feed water.
Choosing the Right Membrane
Membrane technology selection should be based on type of water and the treatment objectives at the lowest possible cost. In the following Table , typical pressure driven membrane process and application are shown.
Watersafe is an expert in design, procurement and installation of different membrane technologies.
|Process||TARGET COMPONET||PERATING PRESSURE||PROCESS APPLICATION|
|RO||99% of most ions, most organics over 150 MW||15-70 bars||Brackish sea water, desalting, boiler feed, purification, pre-treatment to ion-exchange,|
|NF||95% divalent ions, 40% of monovalent ions, organics greater than 200-300 MW||9- 20 bar||Hardness removal, organics and microbiological removal, dye desalting, color removal|
|UF||Most organics over 1000 MW||2-9 bars||Pre- and post-treatment to IX, beverage clarification, removal of pyrogens, bacteria, viruses and colloid, dilute suspended oils|
|MF||Small suspended particle greater than 0.1mm||1.5-4 bars||High volume of removal of suspend solids
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